Lifestyle Legwear for Health, Medical, and Performance
  1. Economy Class Syndrome – DVT

  2. Foot & Leg Ulcers

  3. Foot Odour – Just Too Embarrassing!

  4. Complications of Diabetes

  1. Tips for Healthy Feet

  2. What about travel and holidays?

  3. What about sport or exercise?

  4. Improved Blood Circulation In Your Feet – Are you a Candidate?

Deep Vein Thrombosis
(Blood Clots/Economy Class Syndrome)

Long-haul flights can lead to potentially serious blood clots but travelers can reduce the risk by wearing compression stockings.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), dubbed economy class syndrome because of the cramped conditions on planes, are blood clots that form in major blood vessels, usually in the leg.

The condition can be fatal if the clot dislodges and moves to the brain or lung.

The American College of Chest Physicians has advised that travelers taking flights longer than six hours follow some simple guidelines:

  • avoid wearing clothing that constricts the feet, legs or waist;
  • drink lots, but avoid alcohol and coffee;
  • engage in frequent calf muscle stretching;
  • get up and move about frequently;
in light of other risk factors -- which include active cancer, pregnancy, obesity and recent surgery -- consider wearing below-the-knee compression stockings.

Thrombosis, or blood clotting in an artery, vein, or the heart, typically forms in the legs. Beyond swelling and pain, if untreated, it can become fatal when part of the clot breaks off and blocks a blood vessel in the lungs, causing a venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Commonly called "economy class syndrome," this condition has been linked to long-haul flights and other situations in which people are sitting inactive for long periods of time.

In randomized, controlled trials into the condition by Dr. John Scurr who is a British vascular surgeon, research indicated that immobility over a long period of time can lead to blood clots.

A very definite link between long-haul flying and the development of small thromboses (small clots) was shown.

Scurr and his team studied 230 people, all over the age of 50 years old, before and after flights lasting more than eight hours. Passengers were randomly divided into two groups in which half of the travelers wore compression stockings, and half did not.

Using a very sensitive ultrasound technique, the researchers detected very small blood clots in 10 percent of people who did not wear the compression stockings, but no evidence of clotting in those who did.

By wearing elastic stockings, passengers where shown to have reduced the likelihood of developing even tiny clots. Most of the people were unaware of the clots, which were not serious, but two people in the study were treated with blood thinners.

While the researchers studied passengers on long-haul flights, the results could apply to any method of travel that causes long periods of immobility according to the researchers.

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Answers to common questions about leg ulcers:

How are ulcers treated?

The most important part of the treatment is to control the pressure in the leg. This can be done in three ways:

  1. By raising the leg above horizontal position, e.g. by raising the foot of the bed or by putting your feet up on a stool.
  2. By controlling the raised pressure using external compression with bandages and support legwear.
  3. Rarely, skin grafting may be necessary.

When the ulcer is healed how can I stop it from coming back?

By wearing support legwear you can control the pressure exerted on the veins and protect the skin. You will need to wear your legwear indefinitely. The compression in a pair of support legwear is effective for approximately 6 months, and it is recommended that they be replaced after this period. It is also recommended that you lose any excess weight – this is very important!


Foot and Leg Ulcers

What are Ulcers?

Ulcers occur when there is a breakdown in the outer skin, leaving a raw area exposed. They most frequently occur above the ankles.


What causes leg ulcers?

The primary cause of leg ulcers results from problems with the veins in the leg (referred to as ‘venous ulcers’). The next most prevalent reason for occurrence is due to impaired circulation/lack of blood supply to specific areas on the leg. While there are additional causes, these are the leading factors in ulcer development.


How common are ulcers?

They affect about 3% of the adult population, and are more common in women.


What factors can contribute to developing ulcers?

Increased pressure in the veins leads to fluid retention and swelling of the lower leg. This increased pressure may result from damage to the valves in the deep veins of the leg due to a previous injury or clot (thrombosis). Lack of exercise and being overweight can also contribute. After time, the leg becomes thickened and the skin becomes thin and stretched. Thinned skin is more prone to breaking and abrasion, even if only slightly bruised.


Do they hurt?

A venous ulcer itself is usually painless unless it has become infected. The surrounding area of thickened skin may be tender and painful, and the leg itself may ache.


Are there any other symptoms?

The lower leg is often pigmented and stained, and itching (varicose eczema) is common.


Sweaty Feet

Your feet contain about 250,000 sweat glands and are capable of producing 250 milliliters (one cup) of sweat a day! The smell comes from bacteria on the skin that break down the sweat, excreting offensive-smelling waste. According to Dr. Robert Chelin, president of the Canadian Podiatric Medical Association, the amount a person’s feet sweat depends on genetic makeup and activity level.

Luckily there are simple home and over-the-counter treatments that can help. The basics include washing feet daily and drying them thoroughly, using odour-absorbing insoles to control smelly shoes and choosing anti-microbial socks.

ARRIVA® Lifestyle Legwear for Health, Medical & Performance, offers anti-microbial treatments that inhibit the growth of odour causing bacteria.


Coolmax® and Holofiber® socks - that contain moisture-escape panels, are most effective in removing moisture away from your feet. Avoid cotton socks, if possible, since they absorb and retain moisture.

For more persistent problems, “see a professional for guidance,” suggests Chelin. “It’s better to deal with a small problem right away than to let it become a big issue”.


Tips for healthy feet

  • Check your feet regularly. (Use a mirror if necessary).
  • Check for areas of swollen or puffy skin
  • Check for small cracks or cuts


  • Check for areas of skin that have changed colour
  • Check for areas that are painful to touch
  • Check for areas where sensation of pain or touch is reduced
Consult your health care provider for further help.

How to choose the right socks

Do not wear elasticized socks as they will retard blood circulation. Look for socks with Lycra® 3D, as they are designed to hug your legs without putting undue pressure.

  • For sports or outdoor activity, consider wearing socks made from Coolmax® or other reputed fibers that allow for maximum wicking of moisture.
  • For casual or daily use consider wearing socks made from Holofiber® or Merino Wool ( machine washable and dryable ). Holofiber® has shown to increase oxygenation under the skin and wool has one of the best temperature regulating properties.
  • Look for socks with a soft cushion sole which covers the toe and the heel areas adequately. This will reduce the risk of cuts and bruises.
  • Regularly feel inside your socks for sharp or rough areas, tiny stones or other things which could damage your feet.

People who have very poor leg circulation may also develop a blood clot, a sudden blockage in blood that can cause severe leg pain. This blood clot, known as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), develops in a deep vein, and can occur when a vein is damaged or if blood flow slows down or stops completely. If you’re obese and over the age of 40, you are at particular risk for DVT.


Relief and Prevention

Good circulation ensures that your body can stay healthy, heal well, and properly function during daily activities.

The most important treatment for poor leg circulation is to address these risk factors:

  • Wear ARRIVA® graduated compression legwear that helps stimulate circulation.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Exercise on a regular and frequent basis.
  • Keep your blood pressure under control.
  • Consider special exercise equipment, products and foot wear that promote circulation.
  • Keep moving – avoid staying immobile for long periods of time.
  • Keep your feet and extremities warm.

We recommend that you always see your physician if you suspect you have poor leg circulation. The condition can be serious and an indication of other medical problems. Medications are available to treat leg circulation problems and to help prevent more serious consequences .

How come I have impaired blood circulation?

Your body needs the right amount of blood flow to keep you heart pumping, you legs moving and your brain functioning. A common cause of poor leg circulation (restricted blood flow to your legs) is Peripheral Vascular Disease or PVD. This term refers to disorders involving blood vessels outside or on the periphery of the heart. PVD can involve peripheral arteries (blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart) or peripheral veins (blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart).


Are you a candidate for impaired blood circulation?

People with the following behaviors or conditions may develop leg circulation problems:

  • Obesity
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Lack of Exercise
  • High Cholesterol
  • Pregnancy
  • Long periods of sitting in a cramped and immobile position (Economy Class Syndrome)

How do I know if I have impaired blood circulation?

Symptoms associated with poor leg circulation usually develop gradually.

  • In the early stages, you may experience cramping or fatigue in the legs, buttocks or feet during activity. The pain, whether its leg pain, lower leg pain or foot pain, usually diminishes with rest, but will reoccur.
  • You may complain of tired, aching, or swollen feet/legs.
  • You may also have cramping that occurs in your legs and/or feet when you are sleeping or immobile for extended periods of time.
  • In addition, you can incur such symptoms as ‘cold feet,’ or feet that ‘fall asleep.’

Always consult your health care provider immediately once you suspect poor leg circulation.

  • Frequent suffering with cold feet and/or cold hands usually signifies that your circulation, or blood flow from your heart, has slowed. This may especially happen at night when you are trying to sleep, during periods of immobility or after eating certain foods.



Contact your doctor well before your holiday to arrange the necessary vaccinations. Arrange medical insurance, making sure it will cover your diabetes, and carry a form of diabetes identification.

Take enough medication to last you through your holiday, and some spare.

Divide your medicine between your hand and main luggage, in case your luggage gets lost. Keep your monitoring equipment with you.

If you are on insulin and flying, keep it in your hand luggage as it can be damaged if carried in the hold of the plane.


Regular exercise is an ideal way to keep fit and healthy. There is no reason why a person with diabetes cannot take exercise or play sport, providing their physical condition allows it.

Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and high blood pressure. Exercise helps to control your blood glucose levels and may reduce the need for medication. It also makes weight control easier.

Try to do 20 minutes of moderate exercise (for example, fast walking, cycling or swimming) at least three times a week. Start slowly and build up. Talk to your doctor before you start an exercise programme.

  • Remember, exercise can lower your blood glucose level. You may need to eat extra food before and after you exercise.
  • Remember, ARRIVA has a specially designed sock for sports. Diabetic construction and the use of Coolmax® to wick away the moisture will ensure safe play and healthy feet.

50% of all non-trauma related amputations are as a result of poor foot care by diabetic patients. Wearing proper socks to protect your feet is the beginning of a sound foot care management program.

Holofiber® has shown to increase oxygenation and improved circulation in diabetic patients.


ARRIVA’s Aloe Vera treated socks has shown to reduce dryness of the feet. ARRIVA’s Anti-microbial treatment further reduces the risk of odour causing bacteria.

If there is anything you are not sure about, you must ask your Diabetes Specialist Nurse or doctor — your future health may depend on it